Lastly, implications and further directions for future research are provided. Bergen, Norway Belay K. The blue arrows indicate that whether the influence takes place or not and depends on the vulnerability of the population which can be intercepted by an adaptation or modification that determines whether or not the depicted effect migration takes place or not.
This information is obtained by asking the mother how many live births she had in the past five years. Land tenure in Ethiopia is inherited and cannot be sold, thus, when a family cannot maintain their land and have lost their assets, migration results in the loss of their land as it becomes reabsorbed by the government.
The Push Factors in Nigher. These environmental changes heighten food and water insecurity, and therefore influence the decision to migrate. It is cited in the literature that population migration is a common adaptation or coping response to environmental stressors. Besides this, it is important to develop and maintain the access of family planning services.
This framework can also be used to characterize or model potential future migration patterns and can be used for planning purposes to predict and mitigate when and where migration occurs. Less important in the Ethiopian context appear to be factors such as discrimination or persecution, conflict or insecurity, although communications still tend to be somewhat repressive in that the government owns all modes of communication including internet, television, radio, and telephone.
Abstract Background The most important elements to determine the rate of population growth is fertility. The Ethiopian demographic and health survey data was used for this study.
The survey consist selected enumeration areas. Materials and methods Data Source The Ethiopian demographic and health survey DHS is conducted within five years of periodand In some cases, when the severity of the damage is too great, displaced people may never return, usually because their home or livelihood has been destroyed or because of a fear of repeat events.
In communities with few health and medical resources, out-migration may be influenced by prevalence of disease such that individuals must migrate to cities for treatment. Rapid-onset environmental events such as floods, tsunamis, landslides, earthquakes, wildfires, and volcanic eruptions prompt migration or displacement.
A literature review of the most recent research in this area follows.
Similarly, vulnerability is related to factors that affect the likelihood of the event or condition occurring and the ability to cope with the event—dependent on access to assets or capital—if and when it occurs . This proposed framework, adapted to the Ethiopian context sees the environment as an influence on the contextual factors that drive of migration.
Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. This however, may not be the case in Ethiopia . It will be important to understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that rural households hold in regards to migration, and how external factors such as slow-onset environmental changes affect these determinants .
Each of these types of change is likely to impact migration directly and indirectly through its interactions with other drivers through a number of pathways.
Do our remittances provide economic buoyancy to help keep afloat the doomed ship of a ruthless dictatorship? Generally, there is a possibility to conclude that foreign remittance income has a positive impact on poverty reduction and minimization of income inequality between households.
Through years, the Ethiopian government developed several strategies to reduce fertility levels since In the specific case of Ethiopia, political drivers include annual property or land tax, land tenure regulations, and governmental loan structures, which may influence the decision to migrate.
However, in determining whether migration will take place or not, it is essential to take other adaptation options into account . Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
Proposed Differences to the GOSL framework View full size This framework can be used to create hypotheses to frame empirical studies that look into the impact of environmental change on migration. Paying back governmental loans may motivate migration if environmental changes leave no other option or coping mechanism.
Reduced crop and livestock productivity as a result of environmental change may result in the sale of other assets used in agriculture, including oxen, thus reducing household income. Literature review provides evidence that short-term population migration is a common adaptation or coping strategy to environmental stressors.
Ethiopia, one of the poorest countries in the world, experiences the negative consequences of environmental change on a nearly annual basis, resulting in cyclical seasonal-hunger, and occasional famine .remittance growth and unemployment is expected to be negatively correlated with remittances growth.
Changes in income of expatriates would affect the remittances through. Though Ethiopia’s total exports have been growing at an average rate of per cent during the year /71 to /11, Ethiopia’s export sector is still small; evidenced by the lower export/GDP ratio and the declining share of exports in import financing.
The paper investigates the determinants and the macroeconomic role of remittances in sub- Saharan Africa, assembling the most comprehensive dataset available so far on remittances in the region and incorporating data on the diaspora.
is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her. Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs.
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get. no. september remittance flows in the transition economies: levels, trends, and determinants robert c. shelburne josé palacín discussion paper series united nations economic commission for europe.Download